Topic 3: Cloning

Cloning

 Cloning of organisms such as mammals has been done for decades, but still with varying success. So far, most cloned animals die just before or after birth.  Nonetheless, cloning has the potential to lead to some exciting (yet controversial) benefits:

  • Agriculture and Drug Production – for example Polly, a transgenic cloned lamb, is able to produce milk containing factor IX — the protein that is deficient in haemophiliacs.
  • Maintaining biodiversity – endangered species could be preserved if currently practiced methods fail.
  • Treatment for Human Disease – cells could be harvested from early embryos to provide cell and tissue replacement without the hazards of transplantation rejection.

 Statement: Cloning for beneficial reasons such as the ones above, far outweigh the risks.

42 thoughts on “Topic 3: Cloning

  1. Cloning humans for beneficial reasons have many risks involved that outweigh the benefits. The human cells that need to be harvested from the already living human are old. Since they have this age already imprinted onto them, there is a large risk of premature aging and premature death. This provides increased health complications for the clone like tumors (HRF.org, 2013). As the clones grow older, they lose their sense of individuality. Whether they are raised as a child to their parent or a twin sibling, the clone may have great expectations to live up to. While they could grow up with different preferences than the human, they still have the exact same genetic make-up, meaning the clone could feel not good enough for their parent. Thirdly, different societal classes could be developed so that the clones are treated worse than humans, i.e. second class of clones. Cloning is very unpredictable and inefficient in the creation of humans. In the case of Dolly the sheep, only one out of 277 attempts was successful (Dolly was the only successful one). In the case of humans, it would be very similar. Finally, the fear of people cloning for a “super human” or a prime soldier could be traumatic for soldiers in war. It is clear that the risks far outweigh the benefits of cloning.

  2. Cloning is a controversial topic that describes numerous processes that can produce genetically identical copies of biological entities. Although cloning has many ethical issues about whether it should be practiced, cloning has many beneficial factors such as in the medical field and in agriculture. Cloning can happen naturally such as in identical twins or artificially such as in animals. There are three types of artificial cloning; gene cloning, reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning. In the past, researchers have tested these types of cloning on biological materials like genes, cells and even organisms. One example of a way cloning is practiced is in Genetic Manipulation. Genetic manipulation is the manipulation of a fertilized egg to have the same genes as a relative. This is beneficial in curing hereditary diseases, donation of organs and correcting abnormal genes. Cloning also allows the propagation of animals facing extinction and thus maintains ecological balance. Cloning can also bring life back to the organisms that are dead as long as their DNA is conserved. If we are able to successfully clone endangered species, we could take them from being close to extinction to being fully replenished. A final example on how cloning can be used is by a type of therapeutic cloning where human organs are replicated. This type of cloning may be able to genetically provide identical cells for transplantation of tissues and cells. The major benefit with this process is that after new embryonic stem cells are harvested from extracting DNA from a person receiving a transplant, the new cells can develop into any form of cells therefore being used to grow a completely new organ or set of tissue. If this theory proves to be a success, the use of anti-rejection drugs would be unnecessary because the new cells would not trigger a response from the use of the drugs. Although, there are many obstacles to face when addressing the advantages of Cloning, in the near future if scientists are able to find successful ways of practicing this method, there will be multiple ways of helping to fix genetic defaults, save lives and improving the rate of extinction in many animals.

  3. Re: Maddy Evans
    While cloning does have beneficial purposes it is not to be taken lightly and it actually not all that beneficial to invest in the cloning of extinct species and altering common animals. First off cloning extinct species like the woolly mammoth or even dinosaurs is not going to solve anything. Have you ever cared to wonder why these creatures became extinct in the first place? Many of these animals perished because they couldn’t with stand the environmental conditions (Four reasons why…). If we were to bring these animals and actually have success with cloning them and ensuring there were no deformities there is still a slight chance they will actually survive in their new environment, even if they do survive it’s still uncertain as if it will be a predator towards us (Four reasons why…). In addition to this if the new clone happens to survive there would be no predator of these creatures and then they’re about as use full as an invasive species (Four reasons why…). In addition to this if society as a whole starts believing that cloning is an answer to all of their endangered species problems scientists may consider putting less money towards the already existing endangered species and their habitats and invest more into cloning them (Four reasons why…). While cloning other animals such as sheep, goats, and other animals in the agricultural business doesn’t have as many issues it’s still not a good idea. If cloning livestock became a common thing it could introduce so many problems. If several clones of the same sheep were to cloned they would be identical in every including the structure of their cells and how they deal with infections, because of this if one of these sheep come down with a serious illness then it is very likely that all the other clones will also catch this disease (Fast facts). This is all because cloning eliminates biodiversity and eliminates and differences.

    “Four Reasons Why Cloning Extinct Animals Is Wrong.” Earth in Transition. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2014. .
    “Fast Facts About Animal Cloning : End Animal Cloning.” Fast Facts About Animal Cloning : End Animal Cloning. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2014. .

  4. In rebuttal to the statement “[n]ot only is cloning full of risks and unpredictable, but it is unfair and immoral to the clone, “it has lead me to address the fact that although cloning is a controversial topic it is beneficial in the medical field: the cloning of disease.

    It is beneficial for humans to understand how diseases work, how they function and how to cure them (GSLC). Without cloning, scientists are creating genetically engineered animals with any specific disease. Although, creating these trans-genetic animals are time-consuming, the process is trial-and-error (which is always efficient in finding data), it takes several generations of breeding and there are possible mistakes that can be made with cloning the exact DNA of the animals (GSLC). Overall, cloning “could help reduce the time needed to make a transgenic animal model, and the result would be a population of genetically identical animals for study” (GSLC). This is a breakthrough for humans. It is absolutely beneficial so scientists can save time and learn efficiently about diseases and how to cure them. In conclusion, cloning is absolutely beneficial to scientists and humans for medical purposes: the cloning of disease.
    Genetic Science Learning Center. (2014). Retrieved April 16th, 2014. “Why Clone?” http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/whyclone/

  5. RE: Jordan Charles April 23rd/14

    In rebuttal to Jordan’s statement, “not only is cloning full of risks and unpredictable, but it is unfair and immoral to the clone”, I disagree. I believe that this statement refers to as if all clones would be conceived as being similar to humans with emotions and the ability to feel. However, on a larger scale, I am directed towards cloning in a medical sense where cells would be cloned which would be considered more of a benefit than a risk. Specifically, in transplants, I strongly believe cloning is beneficial to those in treatment, in need of repaired or new organs. The dysfunctional or damaged cells of a bodypart, such as an organ, may be replaced by cloned cells illuminating the risk of “immunological rejection… because the patient’s own genetic material is used” (Murnaghan). If another individual’s cells were used to treat a patient, for example, an organ donation, “the patient’s body would be more likely to recognize the foreign proteins and then wage an attack on the transplanted cells” (Murnaghan). Weighing this huge benefit that would create a large positive impact on the numerous patients in need, specifically those waiting for organ donations, I strongly valid that I am in favour of cloning to benefit many throughout the medical field.

    References

    Cloning for Medical Purposes. (n.d.). Cloning for Medical Purposes. Retrieved April 22, 2014, from http://student.biology.arizona.edu/honors2007/group01/medcloning.html

    Murnaghan, I. (n.d.). Therapeutic Cloning. Therapeutic Cloning. Retrieved April 23, 2014, from http://www.explorestemcells.co.uk/Therape

  6. Cloning is a controversial topic that involves unnaturally starving a cell, sucking out its nucleus then placing it into an enucleated egg to produce a genetically identical copy of the original. Although this process may have some benefits as mentioned above, once we have mastered the scientific ability to create clones perfectly, we will never be able to take it back. Once the technology is out there, who is to stop people from taking it out of hand and cloning humans? “There are powerful leaders in every generation who will seek to abuse this technology for their own purposes. Going ahead with cloning technology makes this far more likely” (Dixon 2007). Although it would be useful, you cannot have therapeutic cloning without reproductive cloning because the technique to make cloned babies is the same as to make a cloned embryo to try to make replacement tissues.

    There are also many risks involving cloning that could have disastrous effects if developed further. For example, the failure rate is immensely high. The success rate ranges from 0.1 percent to 3 percent, which means that there are 970 to 999 failures in 1000 tries (Genetic Science Learning Center, 2014). Secondly, the clones tend to have problems in later development. Dolly the sheep for example, died halfway through the lifespan of a regular sheep. If we were to take cloning to the next step and begin cloning humans, it would result in many deaths through trial as well as many pre-mature deaths. For these reasons, cloning should not be taken even further because once the technology is out there, we can’t take it back.

    References:
    Dixon, P. (2007). Reasons Against Cloning – VIDEOS & ARTICLES. Retrieved November 6, 2014, from http://www.globalchange.com/noclones.html

    Genetic Science Learning Center (2014, June 22) What are the Risks of Cloning?. Learn.Genetics. Retrieved November 06, 2014, from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/cloningrisks/

  7. Cloning is a debatable topic that describes many processes that can produce genetically identical clones of living things. While some people argue that cloning is wrong and unnatural, many argue that cloning is genius and something that should be practised more, due to its beneficial factors in farming, agriculture and the medical field. Cloning can happen in three different ways such as gene cloning, reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning. In nature, some plants and single celled organisms, such as bacteria, produce genetically identical offspring through a process called asexual reproduction. Natural clones, also known as identical twins, occur in humans and other mammals. These twins are produced when a fertilized egg splits, creating two or more embryos that carry almost identical DNA. Identical twins have nearly the same genetic makeup as each other, but they are genetically different from either parent. Molecular cloning is the process in which a gene of interest is located and copied out of DNA that is extracted from an organism. When DNA is extracted from an organism, all of its genes are extracted at one time. Reproductive cloning is cell nuclear transfer, which is the most common cloning technique. SCNT involves putting the nucleus of a body cell into an egg from which the nucleus has been removed. This produces a clonal embryo, which is triggered to begin developing with chemicals or electricity. Placing this cloned embryo into the uterus of a female animal and bringing it to term creates a clone, with genes identical to those of the animal from which the original body cell was taken. Therapeutic cloning involves the creation of a whole copy of an already existing mature life form but not allow the cloned embryo to come to full term resulting in birth. The objective of this kind of cloning is to produce the seed material, cells, for growing replacement organs or for tissue engineering designed to heal or cure disease in human beings. Although there are many problems people see with cloning, scientists will continue to study cloning and find successful ways of using it. There will be multiple ways of helping to fix genetic problems, and it can help extinction, cure diseases, and hopefully save lives.

  8. The risks of cloning should always be more important than the slight and weak argumentation of its benefits. For mammals these risks can contort, shorten and completely misshape the clones life and can include physical harm or distress , psychological pain and sterile reproductive organs. These problems would affect our society by the over population and or no room to place the dead. Also cloning animals to save a species may sound good at first, but once done, you will see physical attributes that will either kill the animal or make it’s life harder. Along with a harder life once that animal is in the wild it may die shortly after the release because of its faster aging cells.

    For plants the risks of cloning are just as bad as the ones in mammals, some risks can include higher mutation rates, the chance of losing a species in general and the risk of genetic variation loss. These will and can affect us by losing natural growing resources we use to feed ourselves.

    In general I think it is clear to say that the statement above is completely unjustified and has no real growth to it. the risks of cloning will always be more important and will never be outweighed by flimsy benefits.

    References.

    “CONS.” CONS. N/a. Web. 7 Nov. 2014. . (tags: none | edit tags)

    “Disadvantages of Plant Cloning.” Scienceplantclonings Weblog. N/a. Web. 6 Nov. 2014. . (tags: none | edit tags)
    “Risks – Cloning Plants.” Risks – Cloning Plants. Web. 6 Nov. 2014. . (tags: none | edit tags)

  9. Reproductive cloning is easily seen as a controversial topic worldwide, but to me the disadvantages of this cloning easily outweigh the benefits. Many issues arise when reproductive cloning is discussed. To begin with Dolly the sheep was created July 5 in 1996, now although this was a huge step in the world of science it defiantly showed the world the risks that come from reproductive cloning. Dolly ended up dying prematurely only living about half the life span of regular sheep, and the creation of Dolly also took 276 attempts (Felix, 2013) which clearly proves we are not yet fully knowledgable when it comes to reproductive cloning. Secondly scientists are finding more and more evidence that reproductive cloning is in fact leading to many abnormalities. These side effects have been seen as very dangerous (Brussels, 2004) and has led to many people leaning even more towards banning reproductive cloning on humans. Another fact about this type of cloning is the obvious effect it will have on diversity. The way I see it, it is not right for a person to have control over the genetic buildup of humans, I think this will lead humans to becoming ordinary and we could eventually lose uniqueness from this. Lastly if we one day do decide to clone humans, then many would be identical, meaning we’d be similar in every detail. And if we become identical doesn’t that ultimately suggest that we would all react the same way to things like disease and infection, then leaving humans even more susceptible to death? To me reproductive cloning is not something that should be taken lightly, we need to think about the effects it will have not only on individuals but the world as a whole before science moves any further.

    “Reproductive Cloning.” Prezi.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Nov. 2014.
    “Reproductive Cloning Leads to Increased Abnormalities, Scientists Warn.” Times Higher Education. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Nov. 2014.
    “The Eyes Of Nye Videos – Disney Educational Productions.” The Eyes Of Nye Videos – Disney Educational Productions. N.p., 24 Apr. 2005. Web. 07 Nov. 2014.

  10. RE: Cameron Millsap

    The statement “Cloning is very unpredictable and inefficient” is a comment that might be true but a comment that should not concentrated on. People who are against cloning are scared for change while scientists and people for cloning are excited for the benefits and amazing things cloning can do for modern day science. Today, there is no better idea than cloning for new treatments and curing diseases, therefore cloning should be more accepted.

    When people think of the word ‘cloning’ they often think of the image of a duplicate human beings, being created in a lab. In fact, many members of the public were outraged when “Dolly” the sheep resulted from a cloning experiment in Scotland. However therapeutic cloning is a different story. Therapeutic cloning is a process by which stem cells are extracted from a cloned embryo (GSLC). The goal of therapeutic cloning is to use stem cells to create human organs or tissues, while the goal of human reproductive cloning is to produce human beings (Bill Nye, 2005). Cloning for medical purposes has the ability to benefit large numbers of people. If organs could be cloned, then the whole process of organ donations and transplants would change (Boston Children’s Hospital) . It would no longer require a donor with similar DNA to the patient to provide the organ. Because of this, risky organ extraction surgeries could be eliminated altogether.

    Boston Children’s Hospital. (n.d.). Retrieved November 7, 2014, from http://stemcell.childrenshospital.org/about-stem-cells/pluripotent-stem-cells-101/
    Disney, Cloning “The Eyes Of Nye” [Motion picture]. (2005).
    Genetic Science Learning Centre (GSLC) Why Clone? (n.d.). Retrieved November 7, 2014, from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/w

  11. Cloning in my opinion is nothing dangerous, it could only lead to good things. For example, as said in the original statement, if an endangered species has eventually lost the ability to reproduce, cloning can help keep that species alive and could start rejuvenating that specific species. Also from the original statement, Dolly the Sheep had milk containing factor IX, the protein that is not present in haemophiliacs. If scientists did more cloning/research on how to cure haemophilia, and implementing this protein in these patients, we more than likely would have positive results. Arguing against cloning is really irrational when you realize how much good it does to mankind, especially by helping to cure diseases, or reproducing a specific kind of organism that is on the brink of extinction.

  12. Re: Maddy Evans, November 7th 2014 “cloning has many beneficial factors such as in the medical field” is more false then true as the primary issues associated with human cloning are a possibility of faster aging, loss of individuality and it may reduce the value of human life. Because an older cell is often being used to create a human clone, there is the possibility that it’s imprinted age could be placed on the growing embryo leading to premature aging issues and potentially even premature death. Another reason why I don’t agree with cloning is loss of individuality as it reduces a person’s individuality because a clone is simply a second copy of someone else. With cloning, there is a real possibility that humans would become more of a product than an individual. If you don’t like the child you’ve got, then just go clone another one and make it the exact way you want it. Naturally made humans could also get treated differently than perfected clones. Therefore, cloning not only has negative health effects, it also lacks the ability for an individual to be unique.
    “Pros and Cons of Human Cloning – HRF.” HRF. Web. 8 Nov. 2014. .

  13. RE: Jasmin Tuhkasaari

    Although therapeutic cloning has many potential advantages and benefits such as curing diseases, preventing extinction and possibly saving lives, it also comes with many risks. Therapeutic cloning is not necessarily a bad thing but if cloning research is supported it could very quickly get out of hand. If scientist can experiment with therapeutic cloning, who is going to stop them from experimenting with reproductive cloning?

    If we open the door to therapeutic cloning research we are, in essence, opening the door to reproductive cloning research as well and this could be very dangerous. Not only is the concept of cloning a human morally wrong, it could also be very dangerous. Although there has been success in cloning different animals there are still many risks. One study showed that 24% of cloned calves died within three months of birth, 2% from chronic illnesses (Yount 2004). Also, any successfully cloned mammal has not lived long enough to determine and long term consequences of cloning (Yount 2004). Even Ian Wilmut, one of the co-creators of Dolly the sheep, stated that “human cloning projects would be criminally irresponsible” (Yount 2004). In conclusion, cloning for beneficial reasons does not outweigh the risks because once we open the door for cloning research scientists will want to take it one step further to reproductive cloning and this could have serious, life threatening risks to humans or at very least lower their quality of life.

    Arguments Against Reproductive Cloning and Therapeutic Cloning. (February 25, 2004). Retrieved November 5, 2014. http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/~davpy35701/text/dy-anti-cloning-args.pdf

  14. In rebuttal to Annekes statement:
    “Although it would be useful, you cannot have therapeutic cloning without reproductive cloning because the technique to make cloned babies is the same as to make a cloned embryo to try to make replacement tissues.”
    I do not agree with Annekes statement that you cannot have therapeutic cloning without reproductive cloning. There is a major difference between therapeutic and reproductive cloning. One of the differences being, the implantation of the cells into a uterus; until those cells are inserted into a uterus those cells will not become a living organism. This difference leaves a fork in the road that scientists can choose to follow.

    Therapeutic cloning would be beneficial to the general public as a whole. Everybody knows someone who has been in an accident and either has brain damage or spinal cord damage as a result. As many as 500 000 people suffer from spinal cord injuries, (Mediacentre) therapeutic cloning could help so many of these people by giving them a chance to have their spinal cord damage healed by regenerated tissue. Cloning could open so many doors for healing chronic illnesses such as Diabetes and Crones Disease. For the benefit of many we should further study therapeutic cloning.

    Spinal cord injury: As many as 500 000 people suffer each year. (n.d.). Retrieved November 8, 2014, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2013/spinal-cord-injury-20131202/en/

  15. Re: Cameron Millsap

    While reproductive cloning has many disadvantages, it is not right to say that all types of cloning do. Therapeutic cloning is a type of cloning that develops embryonic stem cells to create organs and tissues, and comes with many benefits. To begin with therapeutic cloning is a great way to recreate vital organs and by recreating these organs we can help people suffering from many disorders. By being able to perform therapeutic cloning it also speeds up the process of creating replacement organs meaning people will not have to wait as long as they do now. Another benefit that comes from therapeutic cloning is that since these organs are made out of the patients own cell, we will no longer have to worry about organ and tissue rejection (Human cloning project). And because of this, these replicated organisms and tissues will have the exact DNA as the patient. By performing therapeutic cloning scientists will also be able to gain further knowledge on ways to fight diseases such as diabetes and Parkinson’s. In my eyes therapeutic cloning is a brilliant thing that could potentially do many great things for the health of humans. Therefore I think it is not right for one to be against cloning in general because it is such a broad topic one must further there knowledge on it to know the good from bad.

    The pros and Cons of Therapeutic Cloning. (n.d.). Retrieved November 8, 2014, from http://humancloningproject.weebly.com/the-pros-and-cons-of-therapeutic-cloning.html

  16. Cloning for beneficial reasons such does not outweigh the risks in fact it is the opposite. Cloning had many risks such as high failure rate, problems during later development, and telomeric differences. High failure is very common when attempting to clone for every 1000 tries only 30 clones are made (university of Utah). To create Dolly the sheep it took 276 attempts till they finally got Dolly. When clones are born they tend to be bigger at birth than their original copy. Scientists call it L.O.S(Large Offspring Syndrome), clones born with this tend to have breathing, blood flow, and other problems in later life. Even when clones aren’t born with LOS they still sometimes develop brain or kidney malformations and damaged immune systems. Lastly there is the problem of telomeric differences, which is when clones due to cloning telomeres become shorter or longer than normal, resulting in the clone dying out faster than they are supposed to. It is clear that cloning for beneficial reasons does not outweigh the risks.

    resources:Learn.genetics.utah.edu,. (2014). What are the Risks of Cloning?. Retrieved 8 November 2014, from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/cloningrisks/

  17. A clone is a living thing genetically identical to another living thing. Some people argue that cloning is wrong, painful, unnatural, or harmful, but cloning benefits people, plants, and many more, because there are so many advantages. For example, cloning is used to find out about many genes that cause diseases. Cloning makes plants resistant to herbicides, pest damage, infections, and diseases. Also, police can use cloning for identification. Human therapeutic cloning could provide genetically identical cells for tissue and organ transplants, as well as medicine. There are three different types of artificial cloning: gene cloning, reproductive cloning, and therapeutic cloning. Gene cloning is the act of making copies of a single gene and once it is identified, it can be used in many areas of biomedical and industrial research. Reproductive cloning is the production of genetically identical individuals and each newly produced individual is a clone of the original. Lastly, therapeutic cloning is designed as a therapy for a disease. The nucleus of a skin cell, usually, is inserted into a fertilized egg whose nucleus has been removed. A blastocyst is formed after the egg divides repeatedly. Scientists extract stem cells from the blastocyst and use them to grow cells which are a perfect genetic match for the patient. The cells created can be transplanted into the patient to treat the disease the patient is suffering from. I believe, as of right now, cloning is beneficial and will continue to become increasingly beneficial as it is practiced more.

    Citing websites were not working. I will try again tonight and tomorrow (Saturday) to complete my citing and email a completed copy of each debate entry.

  18. There are good uses of cloning which could benefit everyone in the world. One of the ways this could help solve problems in the world is it could solve infertility “imagine being able to take cloned cells to create a younger twin of a mother or father, this would create the opportunity for an infertile couple to experience the joys of having a family without enduring the painful infertility procedures that are common today” (pros and cons of human cloning). There is the benefit that if we could clone humans then we could even have the ability to clone organs to make a healthy replacement for one that is affected by disease. This could lead to major developments to how lives can be saved instead of losing them to diseases that were extremely hard to cure.

    My position in cloning is that I support it as it could help save lives and improve on are understanding of the human body. We could use clones in the medical field to “help researchers and scientists find cures for health conditions and disease more effectively” (human cloning ethics). By doing this we could take huge steps in finding cures to diseases that caused problems and large death tolls for the human race. Another way it could be used is that by using the ability to create clones we could possible help to return the population of endangered animals back to being stable.

    References:
    Health research funding (2013 December 6) pros and cons of human cloning. Retrieved from http://healthresearchfunding.org/pros-cons-human-cloning/
    PL Chang (2014 September 23) Human Cloning Ethics: The Pros and Cons. Retrieved from http://energyfanatics.com/2014/03/20/human-cloning-ethics-pros-cons/

  19. Cloning is a debatable topic that describes many processes that can produce genetically identical clones of living things. While some people argue that cloning is wrong and unnatural, many argue that cloning is genius and something that should be practised more, due to its beneficial factors in farming, agriculture and the medical field. Cloning can happen in three different ways such as gene cloning, reproductive cloning and therapeutic cloning. In nature, some plants and single celled organisms, such as bacteria, produce genetically identical offspring through a process called asexual reproduction. Natural clones, also known as identical twins, occur in humans and other mammals. These twins are produced when a fertilized egg splits, creating two or more embryos that carry almost identical DNA. Identical twins have nearly the same genetic makeup as each other, but they are genetically different from either parent. Molecular cloning is the process in which a gene of interest is located and copied out of DNA that is extracted from an organism. When DNA is extracted from an organism, all of its genes are extracted at one time. Reproductive cloning is cell nuclear transfer, which is the most common cloning technique. SCNT involves putting the nucleus of a body cell into an egg from which the nucleus has been removed. This produces a clonal embryo, which is triggered to begin developing with chemicals or electricity. Placing this cloned embryo into the uterus of a female animal and bringing it to term creates a clone, with genes identical to those of the animal from which the original body cell was taken. Therapeutic cloning involves the creation of a whole copy of an already existing mature life form but not allow the cloned embryo to come to full term resulting in birth. The objective of this kind of cloning is to produce the seed material, cells, for growing replacement organs or for tissue engineering designed to heal or cure disease in human beings. Although there are many problems people see with cloning, scientists will continue to study cloning and find successful ways of using it. There will be multiple ways of helping to fix genetic problems, and it can help extinction, cure diseases, and hopefully save lives.

    “Reproductive Cloning.” Prezi.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Nov. 2014.
    “The Eyes Of Nye Videos – Disney Educational Productions.” The Eyes Of Nye Videos – Disney Educational Productions. N.p., 24 Apr. 2005. Web. 07 Nov. 2014.

  20. The pros of cloning vastly outweigh the cons. I am definitely for both human and animal cloning because It represents a part of humans we rarely talk about, what makes a human human. What rights would a clone have? Aside from the ethical and theoretical implications of creating a human being there are more practical benefits such as the fact that Parents with no eggs and sperm can create children that are genetically related ( pros-and-cons-of-cloning).

    Animal cloning has even more benefits with less ethical boundaries, such as cloning the perfect animal and creating genetically identical food. Animal cloning can bring back extinct species, we could actually have a Jurassic park (pros-and-cons-of-cloning). If we can overcome the ethical hurdles involved with cloning I believe we can advance humanity to never before seen heights.

    References :
    The Pros and Cons of Cloning: Is it Worth the Risk? May 26, 2014 By Natasha Quinonez Retrieved from https://www.udemy.com/blog/pros-and-cons-of-cloning/
    pros and cons of human cloning (2013 December 6). Retrieved from http://healthresearchfunding.org/pros-cons-human-cloning/

  21. RE: Hazen Mercers statement of “Cloning in my opinion is nothing dangerous, it could only lead to good things”, this is completely untrue. I do agree that cloning is beneficial but to say it it is nothing dangerous and can lead to only good things is a bit of an over statement. The success rate for reproductive cloning is 0.1 – 3%. (University of Utah, 2014). This is definitely dangerous, if you were to try this on a human the odds are not in your favor for a safe procedure, so in no means is this safe.

    The clones that survive are usually not perfect clones. Most of the time there are defects/ the cloned animal will live nowhere near as long as the original specimen. A common defect is abnormally large organs, this can lead to breathing and blood flow issues (University of Utah, 2014) Clones aren’t even really exact clones they do not have the same natural process as a embryo it is a reprogrammed cell that becomes an embryo. (University of Utah,2014) Therapeutic cloning is a great way to help people with disease, however reproductive cloning is not as advanced and people aren’t really ready for it anyways, with a three percent success rate, nobody is.

    What are the Risks of Cloning? (2014, January 1). Retrieved November 20, 2014, from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/cloningrisks/

  22. Re: Katelynne Thomson

    In rebuttal to the statement “cloning is loss of individuality as it reduces a person’s individuality”, I strongly disagree especially after reading the full definition of cloning which is: “an individual grown from a single somatic cell or cell nucleus and genetically identical to it” (Oxford). Key word is individual. Human cloning is a possible solution to infertility problems and some even imagine making clones of geniuses, whose work could advance society.

    Cloning animals and especially humans if frowned upon in todays society, but would people really disagree with it if they knew the possible benefits cloning could provide? Benefits such as reviving endangered or extinct species. Scientists have been working to clone species that became extinct more recently, using DNA from well-preserved tissue samples. A number of projects are underway to clone extinct species, including the wooly mammoth. “If we’re talking about species we drove extinct, then I think we have an obligation to try to do this,” says Michael Archer, a paleontologist at the University of New South Wales who has championed de-extinction for years. In 2009, scientists had their first near-success resurrecting an extinct animal (Zimmer). Using goats as egg donors and surrogates, they made several clones of a wild mountain goat called the bucardo—but the longest-surviving clone died soon after birth. People against cloning need to wrap their head around the fact that cloning could be a new tool that conservation scientists can add to their toolbox.

    Oxford Dictionaries. (n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2014, from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/
    Zimmer, C. (n.d.). The New Age of Exploration. Retrieved November 21, 2014, from http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2013/04/125-species-revival/zimmer-text

  23. RE: Adam Jutzi

    The idea that reproductive cloning is going to be used honestly and it will be smooth sailing for the clones achieving human status is a beautiful farce. It assumes too much morality in the general public-or more specifically, the ones who make the laws. Such can be seen when you consider the humanity of other naturally born humans.

    Women weren’t granted person hood in Canada-where we generally consider ourselves the better nation for this sort of thing-until the last century. In fact, women have only been people for around 100 years, despite existing for thousands of years-or maybe more, depending on what you believe. In some countries, we still lack person hood. As well, black people were often considered property in the western world until the 1700s-1800s depending on the specific nation.

    To look at a clone and say that it will be accepted as a human with equal rights and open arms has been disproved by millennia of history.

    Cloning has been mainly accepted to be used therapeutically vs. reproductively by the scientific community-which means that the majority of cloning has been dedicated to treating disease and aiming to create transplant organisms (Eyes of Nye). The method of doing so is somatic cell transfer. The nucleus of a non reproductive cell is placed in the enucleated egg cell. (Utah). These new embryos are placed in petri dishes and kept to grow the needed parts.

    In the future, it may be found that it is easier to get the organs from a clone from reproductive cloning. After all, the embryo-which is the start point of all life-has been taken for a simple medication or even waste product. If we kill our own young, what would stop us from doing that to a “second-rate” human being?

    What is Cloning? (n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2014, from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/whatiscloning/

    What is Cloning? (n.d.). Retrieved November 21, 2014, from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/whatiscloning/

  24. RE: Hazen Mercer

    To say that cloning is solely beneficial is impossible. To all good things, there is a natural issue-and not all things are good.

    If a species is endangered, there is the question of why it is endangered. In the cases we hear, it is due to human intervention, but if you are believer in natural selection, there are some species that are just meant to die out-sad but true, as shown with the dinosaurs. Thus the mass extinctions. If one were to look at regions with sudden overpopulations-such as the deer on the island near Newfoundland. The deer were about to leave that region, and more were introduced. They soon overpopulated the region, even putting the predators such as the bears in danger of dying out in the region.

    That raises the question of what would happen if we just kept cloning-let’s say polar bears. Their habitat is melting, but we just keep cloning them. Where would we keep them? Some zoos are good, but some need to be shut down. As well, if we could just keep cloning the species, why bother with conservation? Most people are concerned about the lives of the animals, and if they can just keep the species going with cloning, why give up the comfortable lifestyle if cloning can put the problem behind us?

    Despite the fact that global warming is an issue due to ozone composition, acid rain, water levels and the damage of the melting polar ice caps, the majority of conservation commercials have to begin by showing a generally “adorable” animal to catch the attention of their viewers. Cloning could remove that sympathy vote, and damage our planet big time.

    Cloning is not required to cure diseases. The human body stores plenty of stem cells-or at least the female body-in the placenta, which is part of what therapeutic cloning does. The cell is genetically engineered to have no set purpose (Eyes of Nye) which basically makes it a stem cell. Why waste finances that can go to all sorts of necessary things to improve the quality of life on two methods of stem cells when it can just go to one? And since people are going to keep having babies, there is a healthy amount of stem cells available for the taking.

    The eyes of Nye [Motion picture on DVD]. (2005). Disney Educational Productions.

  25. RE: Hazen Mercer

    While recognizing that cloning could possibly be a good thing, there are too many risks and ethical issues involved in cloning to say that it is only good. Cloning is morally and ethically wrong, no matter what the benefits could potentially be. Not only do clones of animals have shorter life spans, but often they also have a poor quality of life.

    Although therapeutic cloning could be beneficial, if we allow scientists to research and experiment with therapeutic cloning it will be very hard to keep a lid on research and experiments with reproductive cloning. If reproductive cloning becomes an accepted practice in society it could have detrimental effects on the mother who carries the embryo of the clone as well as the clone itself (Bioethics and Culture). Some of the most significant ethical issues with reproductive cloning are the possible genetic damage to the clone, psychological harm to the clone, health risks to the mother, a low success rate meaning there will be many embryos and fetuses lost during reproductive cloning experiments, and complex and altered familial relationships if the clone is survives (Bioethics and Culture).
    Overall, cloning could be beneficial if done correctly, but there are too many risks and ethical issues involved to allow cloning to be researched any further.

    Cloning. (2013). Bioethics and Culture. Retrieved November 21 2014 from http://www.bioethics.org.au/Resources/Resource%20Topics/Cloning.html

  26. Re: Shannon
    In rebuttal to Shannon’s statement, “Cloning is not required to cure diseases. The human body stores plenty of stem cells-or at least the female body-in the placenta, which is part of what therapeutic cloning does.” The human body does store a certain amount of stem cells through out the body, but these are considered to be limited in their ability. (Medical News Today) Another point is that, therapeutic cloning does not store stem cells in the placenta of an individual, for the individual. They can only extract the stem cells from the placenta during the time of pregnancy, a really narrow time frame.

    Apparently, therapeutic cloning is not without controversy as it is closely related to reproductive cloning. One major difference between the therapeutic and reproductive cloning is the implantation back into the uterus of an individual. Otherwise, the cells will stay undifferentiated (NYSTEM). These cells can then be used for research to cure diseases and injuries such as diabetes and spinal cord damage. One such disease, that is getting a lot of attention, is Parkinson’s disease. There are over 10 million people living with Parkinson’s right now (Parkinson’s Disease Foundation). Scientists are trying to get stem cells that will create dopamine to help people with Parkinson’s. If therapeutic cloning is continued it can help so many people around the world with so many chronic diseases. The barrier that has to be overcome ethically is to find a way to not harm a life that could come to be, and to still make it economical to harvest stem cells.

    Select Format: APA | MLA | Chicago | Turabian
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(n.d.). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/stem_cell/
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Myths and Misconceptions About Stem Cell Research. (n.d.). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://www.cirm.ca.gov/our-progress/myths-and-misconceptions-about-stem-cell-research
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NYSTEM. (n.d.). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from http://stemcell.ny.gov/faqs/what-difference-between-reproductive-and-therapeutic-cloning
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Stem Cells and Parkinson’s Disease | The Michael J. Fox Foundation. (n.d.). Retrieved November 27, 2014, from https://www.michaeljfox.org/understanding-parkinsons/living-with-pd/topic.php?stem-cells

  27. Re: Cameron Millsap

    In rebuttal to the statement “Cloning humans for beneficial reasons have many risks involved that outweigh the benefits”. Cloning such as therapeutic cloning have some risks but like all things in life, human’s have to take risks to advance for the better good in medical sciences. These risks in therapeutic cloning can end up saving lives. If people had a choice of taking a slight risk or being able to walk ever again I believe that the choice is simple. Therapeutic cloning has way too many benefits for ethical issues to inflict its progression in the scientific community. I don’t believe that therapeutic cloning will open doors to reproductive cloning because most of the scientific community within itself has drawn the line where the benefits compared to ethics are unreasonable.

    74% of the American population believes that therapeutic cloning should go further into development. People are starting to realize all the benefits involving therapeutic cloning; people suffering from organ disorders can cut years off their waiting list for their organ because therapeutic cloning can help create vital organs and tissues. Therapeutic cloning also benefits the immune system when an organ is transplanted. When organs are made out of a patient’s own cell it is impossible for the immune system to reject it. (humancloningproject.weebly.com) . Therapeutic cloning allows researchers to test treatments for diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and diabetes.
    Researchers can study the renewal of the vital organs with therapeutic cloning as well.

    The pros and Cons of Therapeutic Cloning. (n.d.). Retrieved November 28, 2014, from http://humancloningproject.weebly.com/the-pros-and-cons-of-therapeutic-cloning.html

  28. Re: Anneke, November 6, 2014
    You state that cloning is “unnatural,” but most things, especially medical procedures, in our modern society are unnatural. Chemotherapy, organ transplants, insulin treatment for type 2 diabetics, and even aspirin or Buckley’s cough syrup are all unnatural.
    Currently, the failure rate is quite high, as you have stated. This is because cloning remains a relatively undeveloped and incredibly delicate procedure. The high failure rate of professional scientists just goes to show that an insidious group somehow gaining the materials, knowledge, and location needed to successfully clone an army is astronomically unlikely.
    You also state that “once the technology is out there, we can’t take it back.” The countries of the world have had readily available technology capable of easily destroying the entire earth since the creation of the atomic bomb in the 1930s (The Manhattan Project), but almost none of the countries in possession of nuclear weapons have ever detonated any. Humanity generally takes the responsible route when given new technological possibilities.
    Overall, the benefits of cloning far outweigh the risks: it could help infertile couples, preserve endangered wildlife, and even allow for organ and tissue transplants without rejection (The Benefits of Human Cloning). There’s no need to be worried about a real life Jurassic-Park-scale catastrophe.

    “The Benefits of Human Cloning.” The Benefits of Human Cloning. Web. 29 Nov. 2014. .

    “The Manhattan Project.” Ushistory.org. Independence Hall Association. Web. 29 Nov. 2014. .

  29. Re: Katelynne Thompson.

    “ “Cloning has many beneficial factors such as in the medical field” is more false then true as the primary issues associated with human cloning are a possibility of faster aging, loss of individuality and it may reduce the value of human life.” In rebuttal to Katelynne, she disagrees with Maddy’s statement which I agree on.

    An example of a way cloning is practiced is in Genetic Manipulation. Genetic manipulation is the manipulation of a fertilized egg to have the same genes as a relative. This is beneficial in curing hereditary diseases, donation of organs and correcting abnormal genes. Cloning also allows the propagation of animals facing extinction and maintains ecological balance. Cloning can also bring life back to the organisms that are dead as long as their DNA is conserved in the species. If we are able to successfully clone endangered species, we could take them from being close to extinction to being fully replenished. A final example on how cloning can be used is by a type of therapeutic cloning where human organs are replicated. This type of cloning may be able to genetically provide identical cells for transplantation of tissues and cells. The major benefit with this process is that after new embryonic stem cells are harvested from extracting DNA from a person receiving a transplant, the new cells can develop into any form of cells therefore being used to grow a completely new organ or set of tissue. Some researchers are looking at cloning as a way to create stem cells that are genetically identical to an individual. These cells could then be used for medical purposes, possibly even for growing whole organs. And stem cells cloned from someone with a disease could be grown in culture and studied to help researchers understand the disease and develop treatments.

    “Why Clone?” Why Clone? Web. 9 Dec. 2014. .

  30. RE: Hazen Mercer Nov 7/2014
    I disagree with the statement “Cloning … is nothing dangerous, it could only lead to good things”. In my opinion the process of cloning results in an outcome where the beneficial aspects are completely outweighed by its evident risks. With the research that has been put into cloning and the common conclusion of it having uncertain results, I find this scientific procedure to be hazardous and unreliable. As well, I disagree with Hazen’s comment stating that some endangered species’ impediment to reproduce can be perfectly cured by cloning, because in reality 95-98% of cloned animals have resulted in abnormalities, miscarriages and still births (Natasha Quinonex 2014). With cloning being an expensive procedure, cloning animals is unnecessary, especially considering its negative results.
    In my opinion, living in a perfect world would include the existence of therapeutic cloning as it introduces the ability to replace harmful tissues with healthy ones to cure diseases(In the Eyes of Nye: Cloning 2005). However, as the procedures of both therapeutic and reproductive cloning are so similar, with one comes the other, making the unacceptable procedure of reproductive cloning available as well. Generally cloning evolves through somatic cell transfer where a nucleus is taken from a specific cell, starved, implanted into an enucleated egg and finally implanted into an uterus (In the Eyes of Nye: Cloning 2005). Somatic Cell Transfer is what achieves Reproductive Cloning which is the production of a genetic duplicate of an existing organism (CGS: Reproductive Cloning). Creating duplicates of organisms, specifically humans, is unethical as it “violate[s] the widely held convictions concerning human individuality and freedom” (Natasha Quinonez 2014). When the availability to the scientific procedure of reproductive cloning spreads, there will be no getting back the way our world is today as people won’t know the limit to which they can use this process. Cloning can easily become overused. As Political Philosopher Michael Meyer states, “[cloning is] one more tool in the toolbox, for people who have bad agendas. The problem [lies] with the use it may be put to: not letting people lead individual lives” (Robin K. Sterns, Ph.D). If reproductive cloning is available to pursue, it will lead to international problems where confusion of equality evolves with the clones being seen as less human then non-clones. With cloning’s success rate being 0.1-3% it is not viable to practice large scale cloning (What Are The Risks of Cloning?). Cloning is both unethical as it decreases a human’s life’s value and the amount of risks that come from its impractical price make the process even more objectionable.
    References:
    “CGS : Reproductive Cloning.” CGS : Reproductive Cloning. Web. 16 Apr. 2015.
    “Perspectives on Cloning.” Perspectives on Cloning. Robin K. Sterns, Ph.D. Web. 16 Apr. 2015.
    The Eyes of Nye: Cloning. Perf. Bill Nye. Disney Educational Productions, 2005. DVD.
    “The Pros and Cons of Cloning: Is It Worth the Risk?” Udemy Blog. Natasha Quinonez, 26 May 2014. Web. 16 Apr. 2015. .

  31. Re: Hazen Mercer

    You state that “cloning is nothing dangerous, it could only lead to good things”, although this has been proven to be untrue. Although there are many pros, to sate that cloning has absolutely no dangers is inconceivable. The University of Utah stated that in 2014 the success rate for reproductive cloning was 0.1-3%. This means that for every 1000 tries, only one to 30 clones are made. It has been made aware that even in successful clones, problems tend to arise later. An example is LOS, Large Offspring Syndrome (University of Utah, 2014). This is when a cloned animal is much bigger than normal, which also causes their organs to be much bigger. This can lead to breathing, blood flow and other problems. Cloning is a dangerous procedure, and the odds are most certainly not in our favour.

    A very large percentage of cloning is unsuccessful. For example, it took 277 attempts to clone Dolly the sheep (Yount, 2014). As well as this, the oldest successfully cloned mammal was only 5 years old as of January 2002 (Yount, 2014), determining that the long term consequences of cloning are unknown. With all of the ineffective cloning, the thought of potentially cloning humans one day is outrageous. Ian Wilmut states that human cloning projects would be criminally irresponsible (Yount, 2014). Cloning technology is still in its very early stages, and the success rates are extremely low. Clones that do survive from the implantation of embryos into the uterus end up suffering from fatal genetic abnormalities. Many clones have been born with defective hearts, lung problems, diabetes, blood vessel problems, and malfunctioning immune systems (Young, 2014). For example, a cloned sheep was born but suffered from chronic hyperventilation cause by distorted arteries leading to the lungs (Bonser, 2001). While therapeutic cloning is an amazing way to help patients with disease, reproductive cloning has far too many risks and ethical issues to be used efficiently.

    References

     “What Are the Risks of Cloning?” Learn Genetics. Web. 4 May 2015.

     Yount, Dave. “Arguments Against Reproductive Cloning and ‘Therapeutic’ Cloning.” Dave Yount. Web. 4 May 2015. 

     Bonsor, Kevin. “How Human Cloning Will Work.” HowStuffWorks. HowStuffWorks.com, 2 Apr. 2001. Web. 4 May 2015.

  32. RE: Hazen Mercer

    In regard to the statement “Cloning in my opinion is nothing dangerous, it could only lead to good things.” is entirely inaccurate, cloning does have positive aspects, in spite of that, the negatives far outway the “good things”. The amount of risks that go into cloning, such as medical, moral and health concerns and on top of that the failure rate of 97% to 99.9% in dangerously high (Utah).

    The possibility of cloning becoming beneficial to humans could conclude with multiple advantages, however, at the moment cloning animals and humans is harmful to the species. Not only is the failure rate so high but those that do succeed tend to have premature deaths and development problems. These problems can be things such as breathing and blood flow problems as well as some clones will mature with kidney or brain malfunctions and even impaired immune systems (Utah). Issues that could be prospective don’t only include medical concerns, but social and moral as well. A clone could perhaps not be accepted into society or be shamed – this could lead to problems within communities between those with opposing opinions (Health Guidance). Another factor that must be taken into account is the potential of the information coming in contact with the wrong people. There will always be the risk that cloning will be used for the wrong purposes, such as mass armies; there can never be a way to be sure that the clones will follow orders respectively and not cause greater damage. The alternative cloning procedure of therapeutic cloning holds promise in the eyes of medical curing but the act of reproductive cloning holds far too many risks and concerns.

    Genetic Science Learning Center. “What are the Risks of Cloning?.” Learn.Genetics 4 May 2015

    Wickman, G. (2015). HEALTHGUIDANCE.ORG. Retrieved May 4, 2015, from http://www.healthguidance.org/entry/14233/1/Potential-Dangers-of-Human-Cloning.html

  33. In aspect to the benefits of cloning which far outweigh the risks is incorrect. This is incorrect because there are benefits to cloning such as curing cancer or creating a clone that doesn’t develop diseases but on the other had the risks that are involved with cloning are creating a clone that is already aged or losing the aspect of individuality and also about 1-10% of the time cloning is actually successful as proven after 277 attempts it took to create dolly (helathresearch).
    In my opinion human cloning should not take place because our world is a very diverse culture and if we were to create clones the aspect of diversity and individuality would disappear. I also think that cloning is an ineffective way to create humans or adapted humans because as proven it took 277 cell fusions to create one successful clone named Dolly (animalresearch). Yes scientist may have been able to create a successful clone but Dolly did not live to her expected life span because she was already aged as well she developed arthritis the same as a normal offspring would have done. Concluding why I think Cloning should not be allowed.

    Cloning Dolly the sheep. (n.d.). Retrieved May 4, 2015, from http://www.animalresearch.info/en/medical-advances/timeline/cloning-dolly-the-sheep/

    Pros and Cons of Human Cloning – HRF. (2013, December 6). Retrieved May 4, 2015, from http://healthresearchfunding.org/pros-cons-human-cloning/

  34. RE: Hazen Mercer – November 7 2014

    The statement, “Cloning in my opinion is nothing dangerous, it could only lead to good things” is completely incorrect. In fact, I believe the risks largely outweigh the benefits. There are three types of cloning; genetic, therapeutic, and reproductive. Genetic cloning is dangerous in that we are replicating DNA unnaturally, and therefore promoting sameness and decreasing diversity. Therapeutic cloning involves extracting stem cells from under-developed embryos and eventually destroying the embryo, which prompts ethical controversy. Lastly, reproductive cloning holds the largest gap for error. Somatic cell nuclear transfer, or copying DNA into another enucleated cell, has a 0.1% to 3% success rate (What are the Risks of Cloning? 2015). Overall, reproductive “cloning cannot be accomplished without putting the physical safety of the clones, and the females who bear them at grave risk” (Cloning for Dummies).

    All types of cloning provoke extreme psychological, ethical, and physical (health-related) issues. I do not believe that we should spend money or destroy embryos to attempt cloning, especially with our current success rate (as stated above). Even if cloning were to be successful, the clones would have severe mental and physical problems and a shorter life span. The clone would always feel inferior to it’s original, especially if it was with humans. For example, a child who was cloned as an infant would be confused about being a copy of someone and could lose a sense of individuality. If cloning becomes common, clones could be harmed by discrimination, by falling short to high expectations of parents or professionals, or by their own sense of feeling fake or non-human (Psychology and Human Cloning). Physically, cloned animals are usually born larger than their original, meaning they have Large Offspring Syndrome (LOS). The larger organs can cause respiratory, circulatory, and digestive issues among others. Other clones that are born the original size can still suffer from brain or kidney malformations and damaged immune systems (What are the Risks of Cloning? 2015). All health issues contribute to a common disadvantage among cloning, a premature death. Lastly, if humans do master cloning the technology would be open to an even larger debate. Who would have the right to clone? What specific procedure must a scientist undergo? When would cloning have restrictions and be considered inhumane? Once cloning is successful it could influence other medical procedures or prompt new, more dangerous technology.

    Bajwa, A., & Ali, M. (n.d.). Cloning for Dummies: Biology Cumulative. Retrieved May 4, 2015, from http://cloning-for-dummies.tripod.com/the_ethical_debate.htm

    Psychology and Human Cloning. (n.d.). Retrieved May 4, 2015, from http://jetpress.org/v20/morales.htm

    What are the Risks of Cloning? (n.d.). Retrieved May 4, 2015, from http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/cloning/cloningrisks/

  35. Re: Georgia
    You have stated “These side effects are very dangerous,” which is an accurate point. However, many medical procedures in the modern era have side effects that threaten the well being of many peoples lives. The reason for these dangerous operations are simply for the greater well being of that person or animal. If you think about all the research and experiments conducted to come up with vaccines, chemotherapy, cold medicines, and many more cures and treatments, it wouldn’t be uncommon for experiments to fail. Although it might mean success eventually.

    Cloning is a very controversial topic in the biomedical field. Studies have been done on the effects of cloning, and the results come with advantages and disadvantages. A famous experiment conducted on a sheep is a prime example of the pros and cons of cloning. “Dolly,” was the result of a cloning experiment conducted on July 5th, 1996. Some view this as a huge leap in the world of science, whereas others view this as an ethical dilemma. A major benefit of therapeutic cloning is that the cells are pluripotent. Dr. Ian Murnaghan explains what Pluripotent cells can accomplish: “Pluripotent cells can give rise to all cells in the body with the exception of the embryo. This means that pluripotent cells can potentially treat diseases in any body organ or tissue by replacing damaged and dysfunctional cells.”(Explore Stem Cells, 2015).
    My position on cloning is that we should further study the effects, and consequences. I believe that if used responsibly, cloning can be extremely beneficial to treat human disease. Cells can be harvested from early embryos to provide cell and tissue replacement without the hazards of transplant rejection (Disney, 2005). This could solve ailments such as cancer, a disease, and spinal injuries, an injury that is surprisingly common. In fact over 500,000 thousand people are afflicted by spinal cord injuries each year. Cloning is not limited to solving human problems, it can also help to maintain biodiversity. Endangered species could be preserved if currently practiced methods fail. A deficiency called haemophiliac, is a rare disease occurring in humans that are lacking a protein that causes your blood to clot when your skin is cut. Cloning is now proven to be useful in agriculture and drug production. For example: Polly, a transgenic cloned lamb, is able to produce milk containing factor IX, which is a protein that is deficient in haemophiliacs. (The Pros And Cons Of Therapeutic Cloning, 2010)

    Overall, I strongly believe that the benefits of therapeutic cloning outweigh the negative consequences. In order to develop improvements in modern medicine, research must be made regardless of minor or somewhat major ethical issues for the greater good.

    The pros and Cons of Therapeutic Cloning. (n.d.). Retrieved May 3 2015, from http://humancloningproject.weebly.com/the-pros-and-cons-of-therapeutic-cloning.html

    Retrieved May 4, 2015 from
    http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2013/spinal-cord-injury-20131202/en/

    “The Benefits of Human Cloning.” The Benefits of Human Cloning. Web. 4 May, 2015. .
    Cloning. (2013). Bioethics and Culture. Retrieved May 3rd 2015 from
    http://www.bioethics.org.au/Resources/Resource%20Topics/Cloning.html

    Retrieved May 3rd 2015 from
    http://www.explorestemcells.co.uk/therapeuticcloning.html (April 29th 2015)

  36. RE: Maddy Evans

    Your statement “cloning can also bring life back to the organisms that are dead as long as their DNA is conserved”, is correct, however, you would paint this ability in a positive light, which I do not agree with. We could clone and save their bodies, but what of their minds? Would we be able to save the individual consciousness of an organism? Would it be morally and ethically fair to allow an organism to “live” like that, and could they do so while retaining their sanity? I do not think so, and that is the reason that I disagree with reproductive cloning as well as bringing dead organisms back to life.

    Reproductive cloning is the act of cloning a human. I am completely against this type of cloning, as it is morally and ethically wrong. Cloning is a risky business, the patient may face unseen side effects. The result of the experiment, the clone, would have the same body of the person that was cloned, but would not have a consciousness. There is no way to transfer the thoughts and memories from one person to another, and even if there was, the clone would still form its own personality from those images. We would be creating a person that is not accustomed to human life and may lack human emotions. If the clone was to receive the mind of the cloned individual, it would not live to its fullest, as the mind would be of an older age, and the organism would die prematurely. This was shown by the experiments with Dolly the sheep, who faced side effects to her health, and died prematurely. As a race we do not know enough about reproductive cloning to be experimenting with it, and until we acquire this knowledge, we must have the wisdom to refrain from using reproductive cloning at our scientific whims. For all of these reasons, I am against reproductive cloning.

  37. RE: Linda Pattison

    I disagree with your statement that “[the risks of cloning] will never be outweighed by flimsy benefits.” I would correct that by saying that the risks of REPRODUCTIVE cloning will never be outweighed by flimsy benefits. However, to group all types of cloning together, and throw them all down together, is something you cannot do. There are other types of cloning, including the one I am going to focus on, therapeutic cloning, which has many benefits and should be further studied.

    Therapeutic cloning, like all things, has some associated risks, but the benefits of it far outweigh the risks. Therapeutic cloning is the transfer of nuclei in somatic cells to form stem cells that can be used to treat various diseases by replacing damaged cells and tissues with new ones. For example: Polly, a transgenic cloned lamb, is able to produce milk containing factor IX, the protein that is deficient in haemophiliacs (Funston Science). This alone is huge for science, as the treatment for haemophiliacs has took massive bounds towards becoming more easily made and accessible. Therapeutic cloning produces pluripotent cells, which can theoretically and practically be used to replace all cells in the body except for an embryo (Therapeutic cloning). In conclusion, I believe that therapeutic cloning can be vastly beneficial to the human race.

    Funston Science- Topic 3: Cloning. edublogs. Topic Paragraph. http://tfunston.edublogs.org/2011/03/09/topic-4-cloning/comment-page-1/#comment-857

    Therapeutic Cloning. Explore Stem Cells. http://www.explorestemcells.co.uk/therapeuticcloning.html

  38. Re: Linda Pattison

    You state that, “the risks of cloning will always be more important and will never be outweighed by flimsy benefits”. While reproductive cloning does pose many risks, to group all types of cloning together is impractical. For instance, therapeutic cloning has the potential to reduce organ rejection and waiting time for organ transplants (Therapeutic Cloning Pros and Cons, 2014). Many people, when thinking of the world “cloning”, are frightened by the thought of duplicate human beings. Therapeutic cloning, however, is entirely different. It involves the replicating of cells and tissue to use for medical purpose, and can include organ growth and scientific research (Therapeutic Cloning Pros and Cons, 2014).

    Therapeutic cloning, like many scientific research techniques, does pose some risks. Although, in my opinion, the benefits far outweigh the risks. A distinct advantage to this type of therapy is that the risk of immunological rejection is reduced, as the patient’s own genetic material is being used (Therapeutic Cloning, 2015). Research led at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center has shown that therapeutic cloning can be used to treat Parkinson’s disease in mice. They were able to use skin cells from the tail of the animal to generate customized dopamine neurons – the missing neurons in Parkinson’s disease (Science Daily, 2008). Therapeutic cloning is an important aspect for enhancing our understanding of stem cells and how they develop. This knowledge can hopefully lead to new treatments or cures for some of todays diseases. In closing, I strongly believe therapeutic cloning presents many benefits to humanity.

    References

    “Therapeutic Cloning.” Therapeutic Cloning. Ian Murnaghan, 29 Apr. 2015. Web. 18 May 2015. .

    “Therapeutic Cloning Pros and Cons – HRF.” HRF. 19 Feb. 2014. Web. 18 May 2015. .

    “Therapeutic Cloning Treats Parkinson’s Disease In Mice.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 24 Mar. 2008. Web. 18 May 2015.

  39. Cloning Debate

    RE: Georgia Murphy

    In rebuttal to Georgia Murphy’s statement, “The disadvantages of this cloning easily outweigh the benefits”. Cloning is simply amazing technology with a few side effects. I have problems with the topics of not cloning because we are not yet knowledgeable enough and the topic/issue of cloning humans.

    In general it is unbelievable what we can do with cloning. One of these things is saving lives. One way cloning helps save lives is the ability to take small amounts of cells from an organ and create a new, functioning organ (Occupy Theory 2014). I do see the risks with things like cell mutation and the possibility of creating new diseases (Occupy Theory 2014). But the positive possibilities (saving lives) outweigh the negatives that can come out of cloning by a ton. And it’s not just saving lives, it’s the fact that the possibility of saving endangered species is very real (University of Utah 2015). There are the same risks involved (new disease), but if it means the risk of creating a new disease to save lives and species then I’m all for it. As for the argument of not using cloning because we aren’t knowledgeable enough yet is completely unreasonable. I do agree with the statement that we aren’t very knowledgeable on cloning, since it did take 276 times to clone Dolly the sheep (Animal research info 1996). But the only way to become knowledgeable on cloning is to keep cloning, learning from our mistakes and building off that. Same as in everything in life. The only way to get better is to practice. We need to take advantage of this technology, and just because we don’t know enough doesn’t mean we should just stop and forget cloning. Also I do agree that if we start cloning all humans then we will lose our diversity and uniqueness. And we would all react similarly to disease. I agree with that statement 100%. But the problem is that it’s a what if. And not even a realistic what if. You’re looking at it from the point that if we keep developing cloning, then one day it could lead to cloning all humans. But this would never happen. This is a very unrealistic and far fetched “what if”. What benefits would come out of cloning everybody? none. Think of how much money it would cost for all of the technology to clone all humans. Countless amounts of money that we would never even contemplate on spending towards something that has no stand out benefits. So in my opinion this isn’t even close to being a valid reason as to why we shouldn’t clone.

    Overall there are so many more good things that we can do with cloning. In my opinion we should take advantage of this new technology even if it comes along with a few downsides, it is technology that we would have only dreamed of 50 years ago and we should take full advantage of it. In my opinion the pros of cloning heavily outweigh the cons, and we should use this technology to the best of our ability.

    References

    “Why Clone?”. Genetics science learning center. University of Utah. 2015. Retrieved May 4th, 2015.

    “Advantages and Disadvantages of Cloning”. Occupy Theory. 2014. Retrieved May 5th, 2015.

    “Cloning Dolly the Sheep”. Animal Research Info. The Roslin Institute. 1996. Retrieved May 19th, 2015.

  40. Re: Maddy Evans
    Although cloning does have some advantages as you have stated, the cons far outweigh the pros. For example, cloning extinct species wouldn’t have any advantages or be beneficial in any way to the world or its people. Although it may be cool to see a real wooly mammoth walking about, this creature along with others became extinct for certain reasons. These extinct creatures died out because they couldn’t adapt to the changing world, and would struggle to survive in today’s environments. Not to mention how it would be introducing new foreign or invasive species into an environment, which is never beneficial to tamper with the delicate balance of our ecosystems on our earth. As for human cloning, it may have some advantages but the negatives are too prominent. With the possibility of reproductive cloning becoming a reality it offers the ability to create certain attributes of a baby too put together the perfect baby for parents. The cons to this are obvious as it will diminish individualism and the differences and faults that make everyone human. A perfect person that has no faults should not be considered human. Not to mention how 95% of cloning experiments with animals fail miserably, so it is a very dangerous subject to practise with humans. Also with the ability to clone people it would create a lack of security. This is due to the fact that you could be cloned yourself by another person who gets their hands on some of your DNA, whether it be a strand of hair or skin cells, they are not difficult to get a hold of. In conclusion there are far to many risks that outweigh the positives to cloning. And when it comes to this sensitive subject, I believe we shouldn’t be asking ourselves if we can, but rather if we really should.

    Natasha Quinonez, The Pros and Cons of Cloning: is it worth the risk?, May 26th 2014

    https://blog.udemy.com/author/natashaquinonez/

  41. Re: Georgia
    You have stated “These side effects are very dangerous,” which is an accurate point. However, many medical procedures in the modern era have side effects that threaten the well being of many peoples lives. The reason for these dangerous operations are simply for the greater well being of that person or animal. If you think about all the research and experiments conducted to come up with vaccines, chemotherapy, cold medicines, and many more cures and treatments, it wouldn’t be uncommon for experiments to fail (Therapeutic cloning, 2010). Although it might mean success eventually.

    Cloning is a very controversial topic in the biomedical field. Studies have been done on the effects of cloning, and the results come with advantages and disadvantages. A famous experiment conducted on a sheep is a prime example of the pros and cons of cloning. “Dolly,” was the result of a cloning experiment conducted on July 5th, 1996. Some view this as a huge leap in the world of science, whereas others view this as an ethical dilemma. A major benefit of therapeutic cloning is that the cells are pluripotent. Dr. Ian Murnaghan explains what Pluripotent cells can accomplish: “Pluripotent cells can give rise to all cells in the body with the exception of the embryo. This means that pluripotent cells can potentially treat diseases in any body organ or tissue by replacing damaged and dysfunctional cells.”(Explore Stem Cells, 2015).

    Cloning. (2013). Bioethics and Culture. Retrieved May 3rd 2015 from
    http://www.bioethics.org.au/Resources/Resource%20Topics/Cloning.html

    Retrieved May 3rd 2015 from
    http://www.explorestemcells.co.uk/therapeuticcloning.html (April 29th 2015)

  42. Re: Hannah
    You stated that “Even when clones aren’t born with LOS they still sometimes develop brain or kidney malformations and damaged immune systems.” I disagree with this statement because you did not source your information, therefore I can’t be sure the statement is factual. Of course there will be repercussions of cloning, but sometimes sacrifices need to be made for the greater good.

    My position on cloning is that we should further study the effects, and consequences. I believe that if used responsibly, cloning can be extremely beneficial to treat human disease. Cells can be harvested from early embryos to provide cell and tissue replacement without the hazards of transplant rejection (Disney, 2005). This could solve ailments such as cancer, a disease, and spinal injuries, an injury that is surprisingly common. In fact over 500,000 thousand people are afflicted by spinal cord injuries each year. Cloning is not limited to solving human problems, it can also help to maintain biodiversity (Media centre, 2013). Endangered species could be preserved if currently practiced methods fail. A deficiency called haemophiliac, is a rare disease occurring in humans that are lacking a protein that causes your blood to clot when your skin is cut. Cloning is now proven to be useful in agriculture and drug production. For example: Polly, a transgenic cloned lamb, is able to produce milk containing factor IX, which is a protein that is deficient in haemophiliacs. (The Pros And Cons Of Therapeutic Cloning, 2010)

    Overall, I strongly believe that the benefits of therapeutic cloning outweigh the negative consequences. In order to develop improvements in modern medicine, research must be made regardless of minor or somewhat major ethical issues for the greater good.

    The pros and Cons of Therapeutic Cloning. (n.d.). Retrieved May 3 2015, from http://humancloningproject.weebly.com/the-pros-and-cons-of-therapeutic-cloning.html

    Retrieved May 4, 2015 from
    http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2013/spinal-cord-injury-20131202/en/

    “The Benefits of Human Cloning.” The Benefits of Human Cloning. Web. 4 May, 2015. .

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